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The Vitamin D Receptor

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a protein that is triggered by calciferol. It is included in maintaining the mineral balance in the body and leading to growth and hair expansion. It also treats adipose skin.

VDRs happen to be expressed inside the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cells, and many the immune system cell types. They are believed to regulate the intestinal ingestion of calcium, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D on bone maintenance. Fortunately they are thought to perform an important position in metabolism.

VDR can be found in a variety of cells, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they may be most widely portrayed in the kidneys and your bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated on serine residues by a variety of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of the kinases in VDR can be ligand centered. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC decreased VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Studies have shown that VDRs are present in a part of glial cells, particularly in oligodendrocytes in white subject. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been detected in a number of glial cell lines, no evidence has been provided that the existence of VDR in glia is a cause for increased likelihood of tumorigenesis.

In addition , VDR definitely seems to be present in a subset of neurons. Actually nuclear staining has been shown in people cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein is found in human major glioblastoma cellular material. In contrast, a small recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.

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